[publications]

Publications: International Journals

“Asymmetric regional dynamics in the Portuguese economy: debt, openness and local revenues ”, Regional Studies , forthcoming  [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Hélder Costa, Miguel Portela and Miguel Rodrigues]

Regional convergence stands out in the adjustment of the Portuguese economy that followed the international financial crisis. This outcome contrasts with increasing regional inequality in other European countries. We investigate the role of regional indebtedness, openness to trade and local fiscal autonomy in regions' economic performance. Using a novel database, we aim at contributing to a better understanding of the linkages between macroeconomic imbalances and regional economic dynamics. Our estimates suggest that regions' indebtedness had a negative impact on economic growth. On the other hand, openness to trade and fiscal decentralization had a positive impact on economic growth.

Is the basic life-cycle theory of consumption becoming more relevant? Evidence from Portugal”, Review of Economics of the Household, Vol. 18, pp 93 – 116, 2020, DOI: 10.1007/s11150-019-09471-0   [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação and Miguel Portela]

In this paper we report and discuss estimates of life-cycle consumption profiles obtained using microdata for Portuguese households. The estimated profiles are much flatter than the profiles usually reported in the literature for other countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. In addition, we also report estimates of cohort and business cycle effects on consumption. The estimated cohort effects are consistent with the post-war progress in median standards of living. However, there is a deceleration in the trend of consumption growth for more recent cohorts. The business cycle estimates suggest that the recent debt crisis has had a strong negative impact on household consumption.

The parental co-immunization hypothesis: An observational competing risks analysis”, Scientific Reports, 9, 2493 (2019) [co-authors: Miguel Portela and Paul Schweinzer]

The main interest of this study is the hypothesis that contact with small children may be beneficial for the parents' later health and mortality (because of changes in their immune system). For this purpose, we document the relationship of a set of individual characteristics---including parenthood and marital state---and socioeconomic status with an individual's cause of death. Using a novel and rich data set made available by the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONS-LS), which follows 1 % of the population of England and Wales along five census waves 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011, our competing risks analysis yields several striking results: (1) Females with children have a 72.5 % reduced risk of dying of cancer compared to childless females (for childless females of age 70, this corresponds to a risk of dying of cancer of 1.3 % compared to a risk of about 1.3 x 0.275=0.4 % for females with children). (2) Males have a 171 % increased chance of dying of cancer when they are married (e.g., a baseline probability of 1.2 % when 75 year old) compared to unmarried males. (3) Females with children have only a 34 % risk of dying of heart disease (corresponding to a conditional probability of 0.3 % when aged 65) relative to females without children and (4) a 53 % chance of dying of infections (i.e., 0.1 % at 65 years of age) compared to the risk for females without children. (5) At the same age, married men have an increased expectation of 123 % of dying of heart disease (corresponding to an expected death probability of 0.7 %) compared to unmarried men. (6) High income and house ownership is always associated with higher survival but less so than having children. While these results document a relationship between the presence of children and mortality, the specific transmission mechanisms remain unclear and we cannot make causality assertions.

“EEE fees and the WEEE system - A model of efficiency and income in European countries”, Waste Management, Vol. 79, pp 770 – 780, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.08.008 [co-authors: Rita Sousa, Elsa Agante, João Cerejeira and Miguel Portela]

In this paper we study the effect of labour market rigidity on the impact of exchange rate shocks on employment. We use a panel dataset comprising 22 manufacturing sectors across 23 OECD countries. In our econometric model, the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on sectoral employment is mediated by the degree of openness and by a measure of labour market rigidity: the OECD's employment protection legislation index. Our results suggest that greater labour market rigidity reduces the impact of exchange rate shocks on employment. This effect is statistically significant for low-technology sectors.

"Exchange rates, employment and labour market rigidity", The World Economy, Vol. 40(5), pp 993 – 1011, 2017, DOI: 10.1111/twec.12376 [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação e João Cerejeira]

In this paper we study the effect of labour market rigidity on the impact of exchange rate shocks on employment. We use a panel dataset comprising 22 manufacturing sectors across 23 OECD countries. In our econometric model, the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on sectoral employment is mediated by the degree of openness and by a measure of labour market rigidity: the OECD's employment protection legislation index. Our results suggest that greater labour market rigidity reduces the impact of exchange rate shocks on employment. This effect is statistically significant for low-technology sectors.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.872 [5-year IF: 1.244] || Article Influence Score: 0.725 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.948

            A previous version of the document is available as IZA Discussion Paper 4891, NIPE WP 2/2010

A prediction rule to stratify mortality risk of patients with pulmonoray tuberculosis”, PLos One, September 16, 2016, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0162797 [co-authors: Bastos HN, Osório NS, Castro AG, Ramos A, Carvalho T, Meira L, Araújo D, Almeida L, Boaventura R, Fragata P, Chaves C, Costa P7, Portela M, Ferreira I, Magalhães SP, Rodrigues F, Sarmento-Castro R, Duarte R, Guimarães JT, Saraiva M]

 

"Interactions in local governments’ spending decisions: Evidence from Portugal", Regional Studies, Vol. 49(9), pp 1441 – 1456, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2013.835798 [co-authors: Hélia Costa and Linda Veiga]

This paper aims at analysing the degree of interaction between Portuguese municipalities’ expenditure levels by estimating a dynamic panel model, based on jurisdictional reaction functions. The analysis is performed for all 278 Portuguese mainland municipalities from 1986 to 2006, using alternative ways to measure neighbourhood. Results indicate that local governments’ spending decisions are significantly, and positively, influenced by the actions of neighbouring municipalities. Attempts to identify the sources of interaction allow us to conclude that they are due to spillovers that require coordination in expenditure items and to mimicking behaviour possibly to attract households and firms.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 1.465 [5-year IF: 2.165] || Article Influence Score: 0.783 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.259

A previous version of the document is available as NIPE WP 23/2011.

"Returns to Tenure or Seniority?", Econometrica, Vol. 82(2), pp 705 - 730, 2014 [co-authors: Sebastian Buhai, Coen Teulings, Aico van Vuuren]

This study documents two empirical facts using matched employer-employee data for Denmark and Portugal. First, workers who are hired last, are the first to leave the firm. Second, workers' wages rise with seniority, where seniority is defined as a worker's tenure relative to the tenure of his colleagues. Controlling for tenure, the probability of a worker leaving the firm decreases with seniority. The increase in expected seniority with tenure explains a large part of the negative duration dependence of the separation hazard. Conditional on ten years of tenure, the wage differential between the 10th and the 90th percentiles of the seniority distribution is 1.1-1.4 percentage points in Denmark and 2.3-3.4 in Portugal.

[Web Appendix]

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 3.823 [5-year IF: 5.702] || Article Influence Score: 9.684 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 3.737

A previous version of the document is available as CEPR DP6933, IZA Discussion Paper 3302, NIPE WP 2/2008.

Hours of work and retirement behavior, IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Vol. 3(16), pp 1-22, 2014, DOI: 10.1186/2193-9012-3-16 [co-author: C. Sofia Machado]

Using a novel dataset from the 2006 Portuguese Labour Force Survey this paper examines the impact of a voluntary reduction in hours of work, before retirement, on the moment of exit from the labour force. If, as often suggested, flexibility in hours of work is a useful measure to postpone retirement, then a reduction in working hours should be associated with retirement at later ages. Results prove otherwise suggesting that reducing hours of work before retirement is associated with early exits from the labour force. A reduction in hours of work seems to signal the worker’s wish to retire sooner rather than to announce the desire of remaining in the labour market. This result may enclose the need for some alternative policy strategies regarding working hours.

            A previous version of the document is available as IZA Discussion Paper 6270, NIPE WP 2/2011, 2011

 

"Associations between medical student empathy and personality: a multi-institutional study", PLOS ONE, March 17, 2014, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089254 [co-authors: Patrício Costa, Raquel Alves, Pedro Marvão, Isabel Neto, Manuel João Costa]

Background - More empathetic physicians are more likely to achieve higher patient satisfaction, adherence to treatments, and health outcomes. In the context of medical education, it is thus important to understand how personality might condition the empathetic development of medical students. Single institutional evidence shows associations between students' personality and empathy. This multi-institutional study aimed to assess such associations across institutions, looking for personality differences between students with high empathy and low empathy levels.
Methods - Participants were 472 students from three medical schools in Portugal. They completed validated adaptations to Portuguese of self-report measures of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory(NEO-FFI) and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy(JSPE-spv). Students were categorized into two groups: “Bottom” (low empathy, N = 165) and “Top” (high empathy, N = 169) according to their empathy JSPE-spv total score terciles. Correlation analysis, binary logistic regression analysis and ROC curve analysis were conducted.
Results - A regression model with gender, age and university had a predictive power (pseudo R2) for belonging to the top or bottom group of 6.4%. The addition of personality dimensions improved the predictive power to 16.8%. Openness to experience and Agreeableness were important to predict top or bottom empathy scores when gender, age and university were considered.” Based on the considered predictors the model correctly classified 69.3% of all students.
Conclusions - The present multi-institutional cross-sectional study in Portugal revealed across-school associations between the Big5 dimensions Agreeableness and Openness to experience and the empathy of medical students and that personality made a significant contribution to identify the more empathic students. Therefore, medical schools may need to pay attention to the personality of medical students to understand how to enhance the empathy of medical students.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 3.730 [5-year IF: 4.244] || Article Influence Score: 1.545 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.063

"Firm ownership and rent sharing", Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 32(3), pp 210-236, 2011, DOI:10.1007/s12122-011-9109-6 [co-authors: Natália Pimenta Monteiro, Odd Rune Straume]

We analyse – theoretically and empirically – how private versus public ownership of firms affects the degree of rent sharing between firms and their workers. Using a particularly rich linked employer-employee dataset from Portugal, covering a large number of corporate ownership changes across a wide spectrum of economic sectors over more than 20 years, we find a positive relationship between private ownership and rent sharing. Based on our theoretical analysis, this result cannot be explained by private firms being more profit oriented than public ones. However, the result is consistent with privatisation leading to less job security, implying stronger efficiency wage effects.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.302 [5-year IF: 0.523] || Article Influence Score: 0.397 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.669

A previous version of the document is available as IZA Discussion Paper 4909, NIPE WP 13/2010.

 

"Employment and exchange rates: the role of openness and technology", Open Economies Review, Vol. 22(5), pp 969-984, 2011, DOI:10.1007/s11079-010-9191-z [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação, João Cerejeira]

Real exchange rate movements are important drivers of the reallocation of resources between sectors of the economy. Economic theory suggests that the impact of exchange rates should vary with the degree of exposure to international competition and with the technology level. We show that both the degree of openness and the technology level mediate the impact of exchange rate movements on labour market developments. According to our estimations, whereas employment in high-technology sectors seems to be relatively immune to changes in real exchange rates, these appear to have sizable and significant effects on highly open low-technology sectors. The analysis of job flows suggests that the impact of exchange rates on these sectors occurs through employment destruction.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.404 [5-year IF: 0.537] || Article Influence Score: 0.233 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.845

A previous version of the document is available as IZA Discussion Paper 4191, NIPE WP 16/2009.

"Rent sharing in Portuguese Banking", The Manchester School, Vol. 79(4), pp 861-883, 2011, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9957.2011.02183.x [co-author: Natália Monteiro]

Using a fixed effects estimator and a dynamic panel data system-GMM estimator on a sample of 77 banks, covering the period 1988-2005, this paper estimates how wages in the Portuguese banking sector depend on the employers' ability to pay. The results indicate that wages are strongly positively correlated with rents even after controlling for firm and workforce characteristics. A conservative Lester's range of wages due to rent sharing is around 56% of the mean wage of the Portuguese banking sector, a number that is considerably larger than in previous studies.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.454 [5-year IF: 0.515] || Article Influence Score: 0.291 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.658

A previous version of the document is available as NIPE WP 18/2007.

Measurement error in education and growth regressions, The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 112(3), pp 618-639, 2010, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2010.01613.x [co-authors: Rob Alessie and Coen Teulings]

The use of the perpetual inventory method for the construction of education data per country leads to systematic measurement error. This paper analyses its effect on growth regressions. We suggest a methodology for correcting this error. The standard attenuation bias suggests that using these corrected data would lead to a higher coefficient. Our regressions reveal the opposite. We discuss why this is the case.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.645 [5-year IF: 1.249] || Article Influence Score: 1.151 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.964
 

A previous version of the document is available as CEPR DP 4637, IZA Discussion Paper 1165, Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 04-040/3. The data and a recent version of the paper are available here.

"Aggregate and sector-specific exchange rate indexes for the Portuguese economy", Notas Económicas, Vol. 30, pp 6-28, 2009 [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bração, João Cerejeira]

In this paper, we compute and compare aggregate and sector-specific exchange rate indexes for the Portuguese economy. We find that alternative effective exchange rate indexes are very similar between them. We also find that sector-specific effective exchange rates are strongly correlated with aggregate indexes. Nevertheless, we show that sector-specific exchange rates are more informative than aggregate exchange rates in explaining changes in employment: whereas aggregate indexes are statistically insignificant in employment equations, regressions using sector-specific exchange rate indexes show a statistically significant and economically large effect of exchange rates on employment. [The data is available here]

A previous version of the document is available as NIPE WP 13/2009.

"Perceptions of the Bologna process: what do students' choices reveal?", Higher Education, Vol. 58(4), pp 465-474, 2009, DOI:10.1007/s10734-009-9205-1 [co-authors: Carla Sá, Fernando Alexandre and Ana Rute Cardoso]

A major element in the creation of the European area of higher education is the adoption of a common structure of degrees, implying in several countries the reduction of the duration of the first degree to three years, which is a controversial change. Cardoso et al. (2008) have analyzed student confidence in the curricula change, quantifying its impact on students' first choices of academic programs. This paper goes two steps further. First, it concentrates on a variable that better translates total demand for an academic program, namely the total number of students who place the program among their six revealed preferences, instead of just the first option; and, second, an econometric model that better fits the data is estimated. Results confirm a positive impact of the Bologna process on the demand for programs, which varies with program size and across fields of study. Our results complement those in Cardoso et al. (2008), as they uncover that being a program leader, i.e. the only institution in the country that restructured a given program, was associated with higher demand by prospective students, which nevertheless stemmed from their second best options and not from their first choices.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.937 [5-year IF: 1.295] || Article Influence Score: 0.518 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.699

 

"Admission conditions and graduates’ employability", Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 34(7), pp 795-805, 2009, DOI:10.1080/03075070802688553 [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Carla Sá]

In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This paper places a longer term view, by checking graduates employability. We find that tougher admission conditions (namely, a mandatory Mathematics examination) appear to be linked with lower unemployment propensity. Previous studies, however, have found that those programmes face lower demand when compared to other studies. These results suggest that students’ choices may be based on insufficient information on returns to higher education investment. That information failure indicates that a Government intervention may be due.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 1.036 [5-year: 1.664] || Article Influence Score: 0.699 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.840

 

"Microfoundations for Wage Flexibility: Wage Insurance at the Firm Level", The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 111(1), pp 29-50, 2009, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9442.2008.01553.x [co-author: Ana Rute Cardoso]

To which extent do firms insulate their workers' wages from fluctuations in product marlets? Which firm and worker attributes are associated with wage flexibility at the micro level? We first rely on Guiso et al. (2005) to estimate dynamic models of sales and wages, finding that in Portugal workers' wages respond to permanent shocks to firm performance, as opposed to transitory shocks. We then explore the factors associated with wage flexibility, finding that collective bargaining and minimum wages are associated with higher wage insurance by the firm, while the threat of firm bankruptcy reduces it. Managers receive less protection against permanent shocks than other workers.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.645 [5-year IF: 1.249] || Article Influence Score: 1.151 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.964

 

"Demand for Higher Education Programs: The Impact of the Bologna Process", CESifo Economic Studies, Vol. 54(2), pp 229-247, 2008, DOI:10.1093/cesifo/ifn013 [co-authors: Ana Rute Cardoso, Carla Sá, Fernando Alexandre]

While several aspects of the Bologna process deserve wide public support, the reduction of the length of the first cycle of studies to three years in several continental European countries, where it used to last for four or five years, is less consensual. This paper checks the extent of public confidence in the restructuring of higher education currently underway by looking at its impact on the demand for academic programs in Portugal. We concentrate on students revealed first preference when applying to higher education. Results indicate that the programs that restructured to follow the Bologna principles were subject to higher demand than comparable programs that did not restructured; that effect, however, varies across fields of study and with program size.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2010): 0.561 [5-year IF: 0.750] || Article Influence Score: 0.598 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.032

        A previous version of the document is available as NIPE WP 4/2007.

 

"Evaluating student allocation in the Portuguese public higher education system”, Higher Education, Vol. 56(2), pp 185-203, 2008, DOI:10.1007/s10734-007-9097-x [co-authors: Nelson Areal, Carla Sá, Fernando Alexandre, João Cerejeira, Ana Carvalho, Artur Rodrigues]

This paper characterizes and evaluates the student allocation in the Portuguese public higher education system. It describes the supply and demand sides of the system by looking at the numerus clausus across areas of study and institutions, institutions' degree of diversity, and performance and adjustment indicators based on students' revealed preferences. Performance indicators quantify the adequacy between demand and supply, across institutions and fields of study, and gauge the performance of public higher education institutions in the competition for candidates. Adjustment indicators allow us to predict the potential impact of changes in higher education regulations on student allocation and its stability. According to these indicators, such changes could result in an expansion for some institutions and fields of study, whereas other institutions might face a reduction.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.937 [5-year IF: 1.295] || Article Influence Score: 0.518 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.699

A previous version of the document is available as NIPE WP 11/2007.

 

"Gender segregation and the wage gap in Portugal: an analysis at the establishment level”, Journal of Economic Inequality, Vol. 3(2), pp 145-168, 2005, DOI:10.1007/s10888-005-4495-8 [co-authors: Jose A. Cabral Vieira and Ana Rute Cardoso]

Using a large linked employer-employee data set, this paper aims at quantifying the trend in worker segregation at the establishment level and its impact on wages in Portugal over a fifteen year period. We concentrate on the gender dimension, to answer the questions: What is the level of gender segregation across establishments in the Portuguese labor market and how has it evolved over time? What is the impact of segregation on wages? Is that impact different for men and women? Systematic and random components of segregation are computed. We use standard wage decomposition techniques to evaluate the impact of the composition of the labor force at the establishment level on wages. The results reveal a high degree of systematic gender segregation. A higher proportion of females in the establishment lowers females' wages while, on the contrary, it raises males' wages. The evidence gathered is consistent with the taste-based model of employer behavior and with the theory of sorting of workers across establishments based on their productivity.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2012): 0.912 [5-year IF: - ] || Article Influence Score: - || Scopus SNIP (2011): 1.545

 

"Measuring skill: a multi-dimensional index”, Economics Letters, Vol. 72(1), pp 27-32, 2001, DOI:10.1016/S0165-1765(01)00396-2

Traditionally, skill is measured as one dimension of the worker's ability, usually schooling or the blue/white collar nature of the job. I propose an intuitively appealing and flexible measure of skill that combines several observed components of skill, as well as its unobserved dimension.

ISI JCR Impact Factor (2010): 0.509 [5-year IF: 0.682] || Article Influence Score: 0.575 || Scopus SNIP (2011): 0.806

 

Books

Investimento empresarial e o crescimento da economia portuguesa” [“Firms’ investment and the growth of the Portuguese economy”], ed. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa, 2017; ISBN: 978-989-8807-39-7. Co-Authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação, Carlos Carreira, João Cerejeira, António Martins and Miguel Portela.

"Benefícios do Ensino Superior" [Higher Education Benefits], Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos, Lisboa, pages:151, 2017. ISBN: 978-989-8863-37-9. Co-Authors: Hugo Figueiredo, Carla Sá, João Cerejeira, André Almeida & Diogo Lourenço.

 “Poupança e financiamento da economia portuguesa” [“Saving and financing of the Portuguese economy”], ed. Associação Portuguesa de Seguradores, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, Lisboa: 107 – 126, 2017; ISBN: 978 -972 -27 -2528-6. Co-Authors: Fernando Alexandre, Luís Aguiar-Conraria, Pedro Bação and Miguel Portela.

A Economia Portuguesa na União Europeia: 1986 – 2010”, Actual Editora, Coimbra: 486 pages, 2014, Organizers: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação, Pedro Lains, Manuel M. F. Martins Miguel Portela and Marta Simões; ISBN: 978-989-694-078-2

Os fluxos e as remunerações de sub- e sobre-escolarizados em Portugal no período 1995-2005.” [“The flows and wages of under- and over-educated workers in Portugal, 1995-2005”], in Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento (GEP), Ministério do Trabalho e da Solidariedade Social (MTSS), Colecção Cogitum, nº 23, 2009. Co-Authors: Fernando Alexandre, Carla Sá and João Cerejeira Silva]; ISBN: 978-972-704-328-6.

 

Book Chapters

“Retornos privados e sociais da educação em Portugal” [“Private and social returns to education in Portugal”], in Luís Catela Nunes (Org.) “A Escola e o desempenho dos alunos”, Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos, Lisboa: 107 – 126, 2015; ISBN: 978-989-8819-18-5.

“Introdução: A Economia Portuguesa Entre Duas Intervenções do FMI” [“Introduction: The Portuguese Economy Between Two IMF Interventions”], in Alexandre, Bação, Lains, M.F. Martins, Portela & Simões (Orgs.) “A Economia Portuguesa na União Europeia: 1986 – 2010”, Actual Editora, Coimbra: 43 – 68, 2014. Co-Authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bação, Pedro Lains, Manuel M. F. Martins and Marta Simões]; ISBN: 978-989-694-078-2

“O Mercado de Trabalho” [“The Labour Market”], in Alexandre, Bação, Lains, M.F. Martins, Portela & Simões (Orgs.) “A Economia Portuguesa na União Europeia: 1986 – 2010”, Actual Editora, Coimbra: 233 – 268, 2014. Co-Authors: José Varejão and João Cerejeira]; ISBN: 978-989-694-078-2

“Educação, Economia e Capital Humano – Notas Sobre um Paradoxo” [“Education, Economy and Human Capital: Notes on a Paradox”], in Alexandre, Bação, Lains, M.F. Martins, Portela & Simões (Orgs.) “A Economia Portuguesa na União Europeia: 1986 – 2010”, Actual Editora, Coimbra: 329 – 355, 2014. Co-Authors: Pedro Teixeira, João Cerejeira, Marta Simões and Carla Sá]; ISBN: 978-989-694-078-2.

PhD Thesis

"Four essays on education, growth and labour economics", Thela Thesis, Amsterdam, pages:121, 2007. ISBN: 978-905-1709-34-6. University of Amsterdam, record no. 221220; Tinbergen Institute research series no. 405. Supervisors: Coen Teulings & Rob Alessie.

 

[portela]