8. “Does domestic demand matter for firms' exports? ”, NIPE WP 18/2019, 2019 [co-authors: Paulo Esteves, Miguel Portela and António Rua]
7. “Returns to Postgraduate Education in Portugal: Holding on to a Higher Ground?”, NIPE WP 8/2017, 2019 [co-authors:André Almeida, Hugo Figueiredo, João Cerejeira, Miguel Portela, Carla Sá and Pedro Teixeira]
6. “Age and opportunities for promotion”, NIPE WP 3/2011, 2011 [co-author: C. Sofia Machado]
Using a panel of new firms and their employees, this paper studies the promotion opportunities for older workers within the same firm. Survival analysis suggests that younger employees experience shorter times to promotion than older workers and, therefore, the latter face a smaller likelihood of promotion. Although men are promoted more often than women, empirical results show that women have shorter survival times to promotion than men. Also, previous promotions are stronger determinants of subsequent ones and this finding provides support to the evidence on promotion “fast-tracks”. [Web Appendix]
5. “Minimum wage, fringe benefits, overtime payments and the gender wage gap”, IZA Discussion Paper 6370, NIPE WP 34/2010, 2010 [co-authors: Kizilca, Kemal, João Cerejeira and Carla Sá]
This paper investigates the impact of an increase in the minimum wage on the gender gap at various levels of employee compensation, namely, base wage, fringe benefits, overtime payments and probability of getting these extra income components. Using linked employer-employee data for the Portuguese labor market, we explore an amendment to the minimum wage law which increased the minimum wage applied to employees younger than 18 years of age from 75% to 100% of the full minimum. Estimation results based on a difference-in-difference-in-differences strategy indicate a widening of the gender gap, caused by redistribution of fringe benefits and overtime payments following the amendment. We discuss three possible sources of redistribution: (i) discrimination, (ii) a change in the skill composition of the working males and females after the law change, and (iii) industrial differences in response to the changes in the wage floor. Estimations support the third channel as the main contributing factor, while we cannot eliminate the possibility of the effect of discrimination.
4. “Manufacturing employment and exchange rates in the Portuguese economy: the role of openness, technology and labour market rigidity”, NIPE WP 22/2010, 2010 [co-authors: Fernando Alexandre, Pedro Bração, João Cerejeira]
Integration into the world economy, specialization in low-technology sectors and labour market rigidity have been singled out as structural features of the Portuguese economy that are crucial for the understanding of its performance. In this paper, we explore empirically the role of openness, technology and labour market rigidity in the determination of the effect of the exchange rate on the dynamics of employment in Portugal. Our estimates indicate that employment in low-technology sectors with a high degree of trade openness and facing less rigidity in the labour market is more sensitive to movements in exchange rates. Therefore, our results provide additional evidence on the relevance of those structural features for explaining the evolution of the Portuguese economy in the last decades. In this paper the degree of labour market rigidity is measured at the sector level by means of a novel index. According to this index, high-technology sectors face less labour market rigidity. These sectors are also more exposed to international competition. However, the bulk of employment destruction has occurred in low-technology sectors. This suggests that productivity/technology may be the key variable to reduce the economy's exposure to external shocks.
3. “The determinants of success in university entrance”, NIMA Working Paper 13, 2001 [co-authors: Anabela Botelho, Lígia Pinto, and António Silva]
This paper proposes that high school graduates applying to higher education institutions do not have equal chances of succeeding. Therefore, admission outcomes must be taken into account by researchers and policy makers analysing college-going behaviour and the equity and efficiency of higher education systems.
2. "The impact of segregation on wage inequality: a look at recruitment and pay policies at the firm level", NIMA Working Paper 8, 2001
Wage dispersion within firms has increased, whilst segregation of workers according to their schooling level has also increased, as some firms "specialise" in workers with a high level of education and other "specialise" in workers with low level of education. This study analyses the interaction between the demand for education by firms and the wage in the Portuguese economy. A bivariate regression is implemented in wich the joint decision of the wage and education of the workers to be recruited is modelled. Some of the conclusions of the single-equation wage model are inverted, because that model captures a mixture of the firm's recruitment policy and the firm's wage policy. This is the case of the returns to experience and seniority. It is also observed that the increase in wage discrimination against women is more pronounced than captured by traditional uniequational model. The same occurs with the wage premium for education.
1. "Working and studying: what explains youngsters decisions?" Luxembourg Employment Study Working Paper 15, 1999 [co-author: Carla Sá]
During the last decades, major changes have occurred in youth labour markets and it has become harder for young people who have finished their secondary education to find a job. This study aims at identifying the factors behind individuals' decisions in their transition from high school, in Spain and in the United Kingdom. To do so, we have modelled a bivariate probit to the choices of studying and working. The propensity for unemployment and the educational level of the reference person in the household are the major factors that influence these decisions.